Leech 3.1.7 UPD
3.1.7 The AMS and SMS algorithm will be updated when new or better data is obtained and whilst this procedure will occur on a regular basis the Committee reserves the right to vary measurement systems if the need arises.
HHB The largest headboard top width for the largest headsail. Measured fore and aft at right angles from the luff extension to the aft leech extension of the sail at the widest point of the headboard or head of the sail. Refer to rule 3.5.3. and Fig 6. Also refer to HWH and HWM below.
MHB The mainsail headboard measurement is the measurement fore and aft at right angles from the luff of the mainsail to the leech of the sail or its extension at the widest point of the headboard. MHB may not exceed 0.75m. See Figure 6 and refer to HWM above.
MHW Mainsail mid width measurement (measurement point is determined by folding the head of the sail to the clew and marking the leech at the fold point). Measure the girth from the leech fold point to the nearest point of the luff including any bolt rope.
MTW The mainsail three quarter (Â) width measurement point is obtained by folding the head of the sail to the mid leech point and marking the leech at the fold point. Measure the girth from the leech fold point to the nearest point of the luff including any bolt rope.
For square top mainsails the MUW measurement fold point may be located above the leech extension point used to measure HWM. In this case the MUW must be included as 0 (Zero) on the input form. Refer to Figures 7a and 7b. In this case MUW must be included as 0 (Zero) on the input form. Refer to Figures 7a and 7b.
Mercury can be taken up into fish from food via the alimentary tract; the otherroutes are through the gills and skin. Absorption from the alimentary tract has proved tobe of the greatest importance in methyl mercury accumulation; evidence for this has beenprovided by the results of investigation at sites in the drainage area of the Berounka Riverin Central Bohemia. The total mercury content in the flesh of fish from these localities isabout 10 times that recorded in their food. This coefficient of bioaccumulation can becompared with the food efficiency coeficient of fish living in open waters and feeding onthe aquatic invertebrates. Of the other aquatic organisms in the drainage area of theBerounka River, the greatest mercury levels were recorded in leeches and this can beascribed to their exclusively predatory mode of feeding. With their wide distribution indifferent types of waters, leeches (e.g. Helobdella stagnalis) may be considered as goodindicators of mercury contamination of the aquatic medium.
Download Leech 3.1.7 for Mac from our software library for free. The most popular versions among the program users are 2.2, 2.1 and 2.0. Leech can be installed on Mac OS X 10.7 or later. Our antivirus analysis shows that this Mac download is safe.
This Mac application is a product of Many Tricks. Commonly, this application's installer has the following filenames: leech220.dmg, leech221.dmg and setup.bz2 etc. The bundle id for Leech for Mac is com.manytricks.Leech. The size of the latest setup package available for download is 4.4 MB. The program lies within Internet & Network Tools, more precisely Download Managers.
Using leech mechanics for life and ES, and increasing total ES leech recovery per second where we can sustain the ES in place - meaning our EHP is actually there for us (and the ES isn't being stripped away immediately.)
When I say single target, I mean peak boss DPS with leech, exposure, curses, and convergence. Mapping DPS (mobs) is lower but they have a lower Life and Ailment threshold, so this DPS figure is what you expect to get against uniques/bosses. You can check what your mapping DPS is against mobs by unticking Convergence and disabling Conductivity.
ALSO NOTE: At 81% lightning res, 7.2 hits per second (bad rolled rings), and Glorious Vanity, ES will need 342 leech per second to sustain and not shred apart. Less leech is required with Immortal Call active.
The temperature of the blackbody is not necessarily the same forenstatite and forsterite. In determining the best fit, we variedthe temperature in steps of 5 K. The resulting spectra wereseparately scaled to fit the spectrum. This scaling factor isrelated to the mass of the dust species. The absolute massesrequires knowledge of the distances to the stars but, for each source the masses of the different dust components can be directly compared.The mineralmass ratios determined in this paper assume that they have thesame grain size and shape distribution (both around stars and inthe laboratory samples). The best fits were determined by eye andno method has been applied. This method is of sufficientaccuracy given the current quality of the lab data and given thefact that several prominent dust features still lackidentification, thus strongly affecting any method. We foundthat the temperature and mass for forsterite couldbe determined using the 23 and 33 micron complexes, whilethe enstatite values are mainly based on the 28and 40 micron features.The results of this simple fitting procedure are shown inFigs. 5 to 16 and thederived temperatures and mass ratios are given inTable 1. We also derived an estimate for thetypical temperature of the underlying continuum. For this we assumed that the continuum is caused bysmall grains with optical constants based on theamorphous silicate set 1 of Ossenkopf et al. (1992) and a continuous distribution of ellipsoids as shape distribution. We fittedthe continuum to the original, not the continuum subtracted,spectra. An independent fit based on a emissivity law gave similar temperatures. This gaveus confidence that the continuum temperature is reasonably well determined in this way. It should be noted that other shape distributions(e.g. spheres) and other sets of optical constants of amorphous olivines caneasily change the derived temperature by 20 K, more often to higher than to lower temperatures. From these fits we could in principle derive a relative mass, like in the case of enstatite and forsterite. Although the uncertainties in the (mass) absorption coefficients (due to shape, size and compositional differences) are systematic, the spread in values makes itvery difficult to interpret them and to compare them with other observations. Therefore, we have not given an amorphous over crystalline silicate mass ratio.However, since the differences between the different datasets are systematic, trends can still be derived from these numbers.For the remainder of this paper we will take thetemperature derived by the fit with the Ossenkopf data set as thecontinuum temperature (Table 1), because these fits tend to produce the best fits. We compared the temperaturesfound in this study with those found by Molster et al. (1999b, 2001a), and we found a reasonable agreement. Difference in thetemperatures found could often be described to the use ofdifferent laboratory data sets.Our simple model, consisting of only two crystalline dustcomponents and a single temperature for each dust component, fits most stars very well, see e.g. MWC922(Fig. 8). Still, it is clear that this simplemodel is not sufficient to explain all the features. The maindiscrepancies between our model fits and the ISO data lie at thewavelengths below 20 m. We note that the three stars with acontinuum temperature above 200 K all show crystalline silicatesin emission in the 10 micron region. The temperature of thecrystalline silicates has been determined based on bands atwavelengths longwards of 20 micron. These bands are dominated by cooldust, and the derived low temperatures (Table 1)are too low to explain the strength of the crystalline silicatebands in the 10 micron complex. A second, much warmer, componentmust be introduced to explain these 10 micron bands. Likely atemperature gradient is present in these sources. The discrepanciesshortwards of m do not solely reflect the presenceof a temperature gradient in these sources, but indicatethat still other dust components must be present. The 18 micron complex is badly fitted. The modelled 19.5 micron feature(originating from both forsterite and enstatite) is often muchtoo strong and the modelled 18.0 and 18.9 micron features areoften too weak when compared to the ISO spectra. The too strong19.5 micron feature might be a radiative transfer effect, sincethis feature is less of a problem in the full radiative transfermodelling (see e.g. Molster et al. 1999b, 2001a). This might indicatethat our assumption of is not correct at wavelengthsaround 19.5 m. The poor fit of the 18.0 and 18.9 micronfeatures suggests the presence of another dust component.There is more evidence for the presence of an extra dustcomponent. The 29.6 and 30.6 micron features also need extraemissivity, as is very clear in the spectra of NGC6537(Fig. 6) and of NGC6302(Fig. 7). In these two sources the 40.5 micron feature is not well fitted, suggesting that the same dustcomponent which is responsible for the 29.6 and 30.6 micronfeatures also has a peak around 40.5 m.A possible candidate for this extra dust component is diopside(MgCaSi2O6), which peaks at the required wavelengths.However this material also produces strong peaks at other wavelengths,e.g. at 20.6, 25.1 and 32.1 m, which are observed in the ISO data, but often not as strong as expected.Therefore, the identification of the carrier of the 29.6 and 30.6 micronfeatures remains open. It should be noted, that the temperature and relative mass of enstatite are estimated from the 28 and 40 micron complexes. Therefore a significant contribution of an unknown dust component to one (or both) of these 2 complexes can change the estimated temperature and abundance of enstatite.The 33.0 micron feature is not well fitted, but this feature islikely to be influenced by instrumental behaviour (see Paper II).In the 35 micron plateau we clearly miss intensity around 34.8 m in all sources. The predicted 69.0 micron feature is oftentoo weak with respect to the ISO spectra (see e.g.Fig. 15). This may be an indication for thepresence of colder dust, and thus for a temperature gradient, wewill come back to this later.Apart from all the features that are missing, we also have a problem withtoo much intensity predicted by our modelling around 27 m.This excess is mainly due to enstatite, but also forsterite contributesslightly. We are still looking for an explanation of this phenomenon.Finally, we did not attempt to fit the absorption profiles. As statedabove we assumed the dust was optically thin.Also, no attempt was done to fitthe carbon dust features, which are present in some sources.3.1 The sample starsHere we describe the model fits to the spectra ofthe individual stars, which where analyzed in Paper I.For a description of theindividual stars in this sample we refer to Paper I. From thissample we rejected Roberts 22 and VY 2-2, because the ISOsatellite was unfortunately offset when observing these twoobjects resulting in large flux jumps in the overall spectrum.This made it impossible to derive temperature estimates of thedust around these two stars. OH26.5+0.6 has also not been fitted,because below 30 m it has an absorption spectrum (Sylvesteret al. 1999), which could not be described with our simple model.The main uncertainties in the model fits are due to uncertainties inthe continuum subtraction. This leads to errors in the temperature of theorder of 10 K and mass uncertainties of the order of a factor 2.We note that for our modelling we completely rely on the laboratory datainput. This may result in systematic effects on our derived temperatures andmasses. Figure 5:A fit (dotted line) to the continuum subtracted spectrum (solid line) of IRAS09425-6040. K and K.Open with DEXTER 3.1.1 IRAS09425-6050The fit to the spectrum of IRAS09425-6040 is shown in Fig. 5.The model fit also produces a somewhat too strong 19.5 micron feature.It should be noted that the full radiative transfer calculations ofMolster et al. (2001a) produces excellent fits to the 19.5 micron feature.The broad feature at 11 m is due to SiC. This very simple modelpredicts no significant flux in the 10 micron complex due tocrystalline silicates, which is consistent with its absence in the ISOspectrum.The forsterite grains have a temperature of 85 K.This temperature agrees with the temperature range presented in the detailedradiative transfer model (Molster et al. 2001a). However, in contrast to the results presented here these detailed calculations predict that enstatite is much cooler than forsterite. As a result those models could not reproduce the relative strengthof the observed 28 and 40 micron complexes.It also resulted in an unrealistically high mass for the enstatite.Molster et al. (2001a) argue that this might have to do with the not well knownabsorptivity of crystalline enstatite. Figure 6:A fit (dotted line) to the continuum subtracted spectrum (solid line) of NGC6537. K and K.Open with DEXTER3.1.2 NGC6537The results for NGC6537 are shown in Fig. 6.The temperatures found for the forsterite (75 K)and enstatite (65 K) in NGC6537 are among the lowest found in our sample.Note that if an extra dust componentsignificantly contributes to the 40 micron complex, the temperatureof enstatite will be higher (and its mass lower)than what has been determined here.The spectral energy distribution of the complete spectrum is too broad to be fitted by a single temperature dust component. Figure 7:A fit (dotted line) to the continuum subtracted spectrum (solid line) of NGC6302. K and K.Open with DEXTER3.1.3 NGC6302The continuum subtracted spectrum of NGC6302 and its good fit areshown in Fig. 7.Molster et al. (2001b) used the same method as used in this paper, and therefore found the same temperatures. As for NGC6537, it was not possible to fit the spectral energy distribution with a single temperature dust component. Molster et al. (2001b) attribute the broad energy distribution tothe presence of a population of large grains, which mainly contribute to the long wavelength side. The presence of this population of large grainsis indicated by the gentle slope of the spectrum up to mm wavelengths (Hoare et al. 1992).The temperature found for the enstatite and forsterite, respectively65 and 70 K, are similar to the temperature of NGC6537, which in many aspects looks very similar to NGC6302. Kemper et al. (2001) assumed two temperature regimes: a cold one from 30 to 60 K, and a warm one from 100 to 118 K. Both components containforsterite and enstatite. Our results, giving a temperature somewhere in between those two regimes, is in agreement with theirs, although the exact comparison is somewhat difficult. 3.1.4 MWC922 Figure 8:A fit (dotted line) to the continuum subtracted spectrum (solid line) of MWC922. Kand K.Open with DEXTERThe fit to the continuum subtracted spectrum of MWC922 is one ofthe best we have (see Fig. 8). Especially the 40 micron complex is very wellreproduced by our model, indicating that the 50% clino- and 50%ortho-enstatite are the right proportions for this object.At m the spectrum of MWC922is dominated by PAH-features whichwere not incorporated in the fitting procedure.3.1.5 AC Her Figure 9:A fit (dotted line) to the continuum subtracted spectrum (solid line) of AC Her. K and K (dottedline). The dashed line is a 700 K (for both forsterite and enstatite)model fit.Open with DEXTERA model with cool dust fits the long wavelength part (>m)of the AC Her spectrum(dotted line in Fig. 9).However, the short wavelength features indicate the presence ofa dust component with a much higher temperature.The temperature of this material is not well constrained.In Fig. 9we show a fit of 700 K (dashed line in Fig. 9),but a similar fit could be derived with a temperature several hundreds degrees Kelvin higher or lower. Therefore it is impossible to give a reliable mass estimate for this hot component.In our modelling we only assumed a single temperature. Based on thenecessity of (at least) two different temperatures, the existence of atemperature gradient seems more likely.It is interesting to note that the overallspectrum of AC Her is very similar to that of comet Hale Bopp (Molster et al. 1999a)where we know that the dust is located in one place.Temperature differences found in the grains around this comet must thereforeoriginate from the grain size differences. Small grains canaccount for the high temperature dust emission, while bigger grains areresponsible for the low temperature dust emission.Such a scenario might also be possible for AC Her, which would imply that thedust might not have to be so close to the star as previously thought(e.g. Alcolea & Bujarrabal 1991).Jura et al. (2000) found a disk like structure for this object, whichsupports the above mentioned scenario.A full radiative transfer model fit would be necessary to completely understandthe dust distribution around AC Her, but that is beyond the scope of this paper.3.1.6 HD45677 Figure 10:A fit (dotted line) to the continuum and amorphoussilicate subtracted spectrum (solid line) of HD45677. K and K.Open with DEXTERFrom the continuum subtracted spectrum of HD45677 we first removed thebroad amorphous silicate features (Fig. 10). We cannot exclude that we also removedpart of the crystalline silicate features in the 18 micron complexin this way. This does not influence our results since these are mainly based on the 23, 28, 33 and 40 micron complexes.To fit the spectrum of HD45677 we ignored the strengthof the 19.5 micron feature, which is severely overestimated in our resulting fit. If we would have fitted the 19.5 and 40 micron features simultaneously,the 28 micron complex would have been severely underestimated. Likewise, attempts to fit the 18 and 28 micron complex together will result in a severely overestimated 40 micron complex, and also the fitsto the 23 and 33 micron complexes will become worse.It is unlikely that this discrepancy can be fully explainedby the subtraction of the amorphous silicates. Because this is not the only source with this problem, we leave this forfuture research.Malfait (1999) also studied this star. He modelled this object witha radiative transfer code. HD45677 could only be modelledwith a 2 component dust shell, consisting of a hot shell, responsiblefor the main part of the flux up to 20 m and a cool componentwhich is the main contributor to the crystalline silicates features.Due to the method we use here, our temperature estimateis based on this cool component. Malfait finds a temperature between 250and 50 K for this cool component. Unfortunately this is notspecified for the different components separately, so wecan only say that our temperatureestimates do agree with this temperature range.The predicted strength of the crystalline silicate features in the 10 microncomplex is underestimated.Since the strength of the amorphous silicate band at 10 m isuncertain, errors in the estimate of its contribution affect thestrength of the crystalline silicate bands at these wavelengths andwe did not attempt to fit the hot crystalline silicate compounds.3.1.7 89 Her Figure 11:A fit (dotted line) to the continuum subtracted spectrum (solid line) of 89 Her. K and K.Open with DEXTERBefore we fitted the continuum subtracted spectrum of 89 Her, we firstsubtracted a broad feature below the 26 to 45 m region (Fig. 11). Thisfeature is also seen in HD44179 and probably AFGL 4106and discussed in Paper II.The continuum subtracted spectrum of 89 Her is quite noisy at the longerwavelengths, which makes the fits not as well constrained as in other stars.Also in this star warmer grains are necessary to